Friday, August 21, 2020

The Lost Symbol Chapter 102-106

Section 102 Robert Langdon had frequently heard it said that a creature, when cornered, was equipped for phenomenal accomplishments of solidarity. Regardless, when he tossed his full power into the underside of his case, nothing moved by any means. Around him, the fluid kept rising consistently. Without any than six crawls of breathing room left, Langdon had lifted his head into the pocket of air that remained. He was currently up close and personal with the Plexiglas window, his eyes just inches from the underside of the stone pyramid whose confusing etching floated above him. I have no clue what this implies. Covered for longer than a century underneath a solidified blend of wax and stone residue, the Masonic Pyramid's last engraving was presently uncovered. The etching was an impeccably square framework of images from each convention imaginableâ€alchemical, prophetic, heraldic, heavenly, mysterious, numeric, sigilic, Greek, Latin. As a totality, this was emblematic anarchyâ€a bowl of letters in order soup whose letters originated from many various dialects, societies, and timespans. All out bedlam. Symbologist Robert Langdon, in his most out of control scholarly understandings, couldn't comprehend how this framework of images could be deciphered to mean anything by any stretch of the imagination. Request from this confusion? Outlandish. The fluid was currently crawling over his Adam's apple, and Langdon could feel his degree of fear ascending alongside it. He kept striking against the tank. The pyramid gazed back at him tauntingly. In wild eyed urgency, Langdon concentrated all of his psychological vitality on the chessboard of images. What might they be able to potentially mean? Tragically, the combination appeared to be unique to the point that he was unable to try and envision where to start. They're not even from similar periods ever! Outside the tank, her voice suppressed yet perceptible, Katherine could be heard sorrowfully asking for Langdon's discharge. In spite of his inability to see an answer, the possibility of death appeared to propel each cell in his body to discover one. He felt a peculiar lucidity of psyche, not at all like anything he had ever experienced. Think! He checked the matrix seriously, looking for some clueâ€a design, a shrouded word, an uncommon symbol, anything at allâ€but he saw just a lattice of disconnected images. Bedlam. As time passes, Langdon had started to feel a spooky deadness overwhelming his body. Maybe his very tissue were getting ready to shield his psyche from the torment of death. The water was currently taking steps to immerse his ears, and he lifted his head as far as possible, pushing it against the highest point of the container. Alarming pictures started blazing before his eyes. A kid in New England stepping water at the base of a dull well. A man in Rome caught underneath a skeleton in an upset final resting place. Katherine's yells were developing increasingly wild eyed. From all Langdon could hear, she was attempting to prevail upon a madmanâ€insisting that Langdon couldn't be relied upon to unravel the pyramid without going to visit the Almas Temple. â€Å"That assembling clearly holds the missing piece to this riddle! In what capacity would robert be able to decode the pyramid without all the information?!† Langdon valued her endeavors, but he felt sure that â€Å"Eight Franklin Square† was not highlighting the Almas Temple. The timetable is all off-base! As indicated by legend, the Masonic Pyramid was made in the mid-1800s, decades before the Shriners even existed. Truth be told, Langdon acknowledged, it was most likely before the square was even called Franklin Square. The capstone couldn't in any way, shape or form have been highlighting an unbuilt working at a nonexistent location. Whatever â€Å"Eight Franklin Square† was highlighting . . . it needed to exist in 1850. Lamentably, Langdon was drawing an all out clear. He examined his memory banks for whatever might fit the course of events. Eight Franklin Square? Something that was in presence in 1850? Langdon thought of nothing. The fluid was streaming into his ears now. Battling his fear, he gazed up at the lattice of images on the glass. I don't comprehend the association! In a froze furor, his psyche started heaving all the remote it could create. Eight Franklin Square . . . squares . . . this matrix of images is a square . . . the square and the compass are Masonic images . . . Masonic special stepped areas are square . . . squares have ninety-degree points. The water continued rising, however Langdon shut it out. Eight Franklin . . . eight . . . this lattice is eight-by-eight . . . Franklin has eight letters . . . â€Å"The Order† has eight letters . . . 8 is the pivoted image for unendingness . . . eight is the quantity of obliteration in numerology . . . Langdon had no clue. Outside the tank, Katherine was all the while arguing, however Langdon's hearing was currently discontinuous as the water was sloshing around his head. † . . . inconceivable without knowing . . . capstone's message unmistakably . . . the mystery stows away withinâ€â€Å" At that point she was no more. Water immersed Langdon's ears, rubbing out the remainder of Katherine's voice. An abrupt womblike quiet immersed him, and Langdon acknowledged he genuinely was going to kick the bucket. The mystery stows away within†Katherine's last words reverberated through the quiet of his tomb. The mystery covers up inside . . . Unusually, Langdon acknowledged he had heard these accurate words ordinarily previously. The mystery stows away . . . inside. Indeed, even now, it appeared, the Ancient Mysteries were provoking him. â€Å"The mystery covers up within† was the center principle of the secrets, encouraging humankind to look for God not in the sky above . . . but instead inside himself. The mystery covers up inside. It was the message of all the incredible otherworldly instructors. The realm of God is inside you, said Jesus Christ. Know thyself, said Pythagoras. Know ye not that ye are divine beings, said Hermes Trismegistus. The rundown continued forever . . . All the supernatural lessons of the ages had endeavored to pass on this one thought. The mystery covers up inside. All things being equal, humanity kept seeking the sky for the substance of God. This acknowledgment, for Langdon, presently turned into an extreme incongruity. At the present time, with his eyes confronting the sky like all the visually impaired men who went before him, Robert Langdon out of nowhere observed the light. It hit him like a jolt from above. The mystery stows away inside The Order Eight Franklin Square Instantly he comprehended. The message on the capstone was abruptly perfectly clear. Its significance had been gazing him in the face throughout the night. The content on the capstone, similar to the Masonic Pyramid itself, was a symbolonâ€a code in piecesâ€a message written in parts. The capstone's importance was disguised in so straightforward a way that Langdon could barely accept he and Katherine had not spotted it. Additional bewildering still, Langdon now understood that the message on the capstone did to be sure uncover precisely how to interpret the lattice of images on the base of the pyramid. It was so exceptionally basic. Precisely as Peter Solomon had guaranteed, the brilliant capstone was a strong charm with the ability to bring request from bedlam. Langdon started beating on the cover and yelling, â€Å"I know! I know!† Above him, the stone pyramid lifted off and floated away. In its place, the inked face returned, its chilling appearance gazing down through the little window. â€Å"I illuminated it!† Langdon yelled. â€Å"Let me out!† At the point when the inked man spoke, Langdon's lowered ears heard nothing. His eyes, in any case, saw the lips talk two words. â€Å"Tell me.† â€Å"I will!† Langdon shouted, the water nearly to his eyes. â€Å"Let me out! I'll clarify everything!† It's so basic. The man's lips moved once more. â€Å"Tell me now . . . or on the other hand die.† With the water ascending through the last inch of air space, Langdon tipped his head back to keep his mouth over the waterline. As he did as such, warm fluid immersed his eyes, obscuring his vision. Curving his back, he squeezed his mouth against the Plexiglas window. At that point, with his most recent couple of seconds of air, Robert Langdon shared the mystery of how to decode the Masonic Pyramid. As he wrapped up, the fluid rose around his lips. Intuitively, Langdon drew a last breath and braced his mouth shut. After a second, the liquid secured him altogether, arriving at the highest point of his tomb and spreading out over the Plexiglas. He did it, Mal'akh figured it out. Langdon made sense of how to settle the pyramid. The appropriate response was so basic. So self-evident. Underneath the window, the lowered essence of Robert Langdon gazed up at him with urgent and importuning eyes. Mal'akh shook his head at him and gradually mouthed the words: â€Å"Thank you, Professor. Appreciate the afterlife.† Part 103 As a genuine swimmer, Robert Langdon had regularly thought about what it might feel want to suffocate. He currently realized he would learn firsthand. Despite the fact that he could hold his breath longer than a great many people, he could as of now feel his body responding to the nonattendance of air. Carbon dioxide was gathering in his blood, carrying with it the instinctual inclination to breathe in. Try not to relax! The reflex to breathe in was expanding in power as time passes. Langdon knew very soon he would arrive at what was known as the breath-hold breakpointâ€that crucial point in time at which an individual could no longer willfully hold his breath. Open the cover! Langdon's intuition was to pound and battle, however he knew not to squander significant oxygen. Everything he could do was gaze up through the haze of water above him and expectation. The world outside was presently just a dim fix of light over the Plexiglas window. His center muscles had started consuming, and he realized hypoxia was setting in. Out of nowhere a wonderful and spooky face showed up, looking down at him. It was Katherine, her delicate highlights looking practically ethereal through the cover of fluid. Their eyes met through the Plexiglas window, and for a moment, Langdon thought he was spared. Katherine! At that point he heard her quieted cries of ghastliness and acknowledged she was being held there by their captor. The inked beast was compelling her to shoulder mind

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

College and University Accommodations for ADHD Students

College and University Accommodations for ADHD Students ADHD School Print College and University Accommodations for ADHD Students By Jacqueline Sinfield facebook twitter Jacqueline Sinfield is an ADHD coach, and the author of Untapped Brilliance, How to Reach Your Full Potential As An Adult With ADHD. Learn about our editorial policy Jacqueline Sinfield Updated on June 19, 2019 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children Sanjeri/Getty Images Student accommodations are designed to support students with learning challenges so they can achieve their academic potential. Accommodations help ADHD students both in how they acquire information, for example in class, and how they demonstrate their knowledge in exam situations. Accommodations are intended to act as an equalizer between students, so that if you have ADHD youre not at a disadvantage academically. Theres no reason to feel ashamed or embarrassed about receiving accommodations. Providing these accommodations  were shown to be helpful for ADHD students. Helpful Accommodations for ADHD Students These are examples of accommodations for college students with ADHD. How Information Is  Presented Written instructions (rather just verbal)Help with reading assignmentsAbility to record the lectures (and be loaned recording equipment if needed)A note taker who writes the class notes Setting Sit exams in a quiet location Timing Extra time when sitting exams.  The standard is time and half, although some students are eligible for longer.Extra time to finish assignmentsReduced course load.  For example, you could be a part-time student and still get the benefits of being a full-time student. Advanced course selection   Picking your courses before other students means you can select classes at the time of day where it is easiest for you to learn. You can also pick your preferred teachers. Both of these options can help your grades. Who Should Get Accommodations? Students that have had accommodations in high school tend to be more inclined to have accommodations as soon as they reach college. They have already experienced the benefits first hand and know how helpful they are to their success. Some ADHD students were able to get good grades in high school without accommodations. When they reach university, where the volume of material to study increases and the academic standard is higher, they realize they would benefit from some additional support. This might not happen until the second semester or even the second year. Benefits of Accommodations for ADHD You are able to get the grades you know are capable of.It helps your self-esteem. The grades you get are a more accurate reflection of the hard work you are putting into your studies.Your college experience is less stressful and more enjoyable.With improved grades, you have more options after graduation, including taking a post-graduate program.If you have accommodations in college, you are also eligible for them when you take admission exams for professional schools, for example, LSAT or MCAT, or for graduate schools, for example, GRE or GMAT. Overcoming Reluctance to Request Accommodations Many students with ADHD are reluctant to ask for accommodations. Here are some common reasons why you might not pursue this option: You don’t want to be different from your friends.Having accommodations would feel like cheating and put you at an unfair advantage.You do not feel that you deserve them.You do not want to be labeled as someone with a disability.You feel overwhelmed at the thought of setting up the accommodations. Remember, accommodations were created to help students just like you. Rather than putting you at an unfair advantage, they ‘even the  playing field’ so you are on equal footing with your peers. This is not cheating!  Colleges and universities have a vetting process to make sure only students with studying challenges are given accommodations. If organizing accommodations feels overwhelming, ask for help. A parent, tutor, organized friend or even a member of staff at the Office for Student Disabilities Service could help guide you through this process. Whenever you learn about a topic, you feel empowered, less overwhelmed and more likely to take action. I asked Stephanie Moulton Sarkis some ‘Frequently Asked Questions’ about accommodations for ADHD students.  Dr. Sarkis is the author of 5 books about ADHD including “Making the Grade with ADD: A Students Guide to Succeeding in College with Attention Deficit Disorder. How Does an ADHD Student Get Accommodations in College? When you first get accepted to a college or university, visit their website. Find the webpage for  Office for Student Disabilities Service and start to initiate the accommodation process.  Tell them about your ADHD diagnosis and request student accommodations. The Office for Student Disabilities will then explain what information they need from you. Each school requirements are slightly different. However, typically they ask for a letter from a licensed clinic on letterhead paper, stating your diagnosis, how they arrived at the diagnosis and the date they saw you. There has been an important development regarding the information you need to provide. Previously, your test needed to have been carried out in the last 5 years. This is no longer the case. It can have been carried out at any time in your life if it meets the offices criteria. If you had a 504 in high school, you could include a copy of that plan too. What Happens Next? Once the administration work has been completed, you will be contacted by the Office for Student Disabilities and have an appointment with a member of their staff. They will let you know what accommodations you are entitled to. At some colleges, the Office for Student Disabilities will contact your professors to let them know about your accommodations.  Other colleges will give you a letter detailing your accommodations. Then you can show the letter to each of your professors at the start of the semester, either after class or during office hours. Most professors are familiar with how accommodations work; however, if they have any questions, either you or the Office for Student Disabilities can answer them. What Accommodations Do I Need? If you have had accommodations in high school, then you will be familiar with what accommodations are helpful to you. If accommodations are new to you, it might be harder to know which ones will help you. Accept all the accommodations that are offered to you, even if you do not use them. This is because it can take a long time to add accommodations. What Happens If  My Request for Accommodations Is Rejected? If your request is denied for any reason, you can appeal. Often a rejection is because the Office for Student Disabilities requires additional information. Once you have provided the information, the accommodations can be approved. If you need to take the further action, contact the Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) They are the organization responsible for overseeing the accommodation process. However, it is always simpler if you can talk to the school first. If I Have Accommodations in College, Will This Go Against Me in My Career? Schools are not allowed to disclose confidential information about you. There are strict laws about this. What If I Go to Private School? Any universities receiving a PAL grant must follow The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which is a civil rights law that stops discrimination against people with disabilities in all areas of life, including schools. What Happens If I Change My Mind and Want Accommodations After All? Even if you did not apply for accommodations when you first enrolled in school,  it is not a problem. You can apply at any time. The only  downside is that the review process takes time to be processed and during this time, you will still be studying and getting grades. Any Other Advice for ADHD Students? Join a support group and meet other students in similar positions. This helps you to realize that you are not alone, and you can share experiences with people who really understand. The Office for Student Disabilities Service might run a support group, or will have the details of one that is held on campus.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Emotional Intelligence and Athletic Performance - 1744 Words

According to Salovey and Mayer (1990), â€Å"understanding emotions involves comprehension of how basic emotions are blended to form complex emotions, how emotions are affected by events surrounding experiences, and whether various emotional reactions are likely in given social settings. Regulating emotions encompasses the control of emotions in oneself and in others. An individual’s emotional intelligence is an indication of how he or she perceives, understands, and regulates emotions. In sum, emotional intelligence is a form of intelligence that involves â€Å"the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions† (Salovery and Mayer, 1990,†¦show more content†¦Research has pointed out the importance for us to develop a clear perspective on the theoretical development of EQ. Moreover, how this theory may or may not overlap with tradit ional forms of intelligence and with psychological skills and strategies as they relate to athletic performance. In the Lane et al. (2010) study, the researchers have explored the findings of how emotional intelligence is related to emotions experienced before successful and unsuccessful performances and how certain emotions are correlated with successful performances and poor performances. Previous research has shown that emotional intelligence is correlated positively with pleasant emotions and negatively with unpleasant emotions. Further, Lane et al. (2009c) found emotional intelligence scores correlated with frequent use of psychological skills. Athletes reporting frequent use of psychological skills (Thomas et al., 1999) also appear to report high scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scales. B. Comparison of the purposes posed by the studies The purpose of the Zizzi et al. (2003) study was to find a relationship between emotional intelligence and athletic performance in a sample of Division I baseball players. This study explored the relationships between emotional intelligence and the global measures of baseball performance in a sample of college baseball players. More specifically, aShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Ei As A Mental Ability861 Words   |  4 Pagesreferring to an individual’s tendency to manage his or her emotions and is usually measured using self-report style questionnaires (Laborde, Brà ¼ll, Weber Anders, 2011) such as the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue; Petrides, 2009). The EI as a mental ability approach considers EI as a form of intelligence. The approach defines EI as â€Å"a set of abilities that support the adaptive use of emotions as part of our cognitive process† (Rivers, Brackett, Salovey Mayer, 2008, p. 2) and is linkedRead MoreAnalysis Of Alfred Binet And L ewis Terman On Intelligence Testing1696 Words   |  7 Pagescomparing Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman on their approaches to intelligence testing there are some similarities amongst the two. One such similarity would be regarding content. Alfred Binet’s approach to intelligence testing consisted of tests that ranged in difficulty levels from easy to hard. These tests required one to demonstrate his or her own cognitive ability, decision making, and verbal skills. Lewis Terman’s approach to intelligence testing was an updated version of Binet’s. 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Thus, explaining why experts in the field of sports pharmacology are needed to consult athletes and coaches regarding the rational use of pharmacological management to comply with antidoping regulations. Despite widespread acceptanceRead MoreStereotype Threat And Its Effect On Social Group836 Words   |  4 Pagesperform worse on the specific task (Steele Aronson, 1995 in Krendl, Richeson, Kelley, Heatherton, 2008). This phenomenon is called stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is stated as the performance reducer when a negative stereotype message about someone’s own group is made salient to evaluate the performance and any of the member’s actions that conform the stereotype making it credible as a self-characterization in the eyes of others, and mainly in one’s own eyes (Steele Aronson, 1995). DuringRead MoreImportance Of Physical Education1277 Words   |  6 Pagesand emotional challenges. As the child grows, excellent physical education can advocate social, cooperative, and problem-solving competencies. Exceptional physical education programs in United States schools should be considered necessary because they are essential in progressing motor skills, physical fitness, and knowledge of concepts that provide lifelong, healthy ways of life. While physical education provides many benefits to children, most of these benefits are physical. The athletic programsRead MoreTalcott Parson s Theory Of Pattern Variables1490 Words   |  6 Pagestraits (i.e. race, gender, age) and the impact it has on other areas of life, such as academics or work ethic. For example, African Americans are frequently stereotyped as having a lower IQ, performing poorer in academic settings, but being more athletic oriented; they face this stereotype because of their ascribed trait of skin color, or race (which is already a socially constructed phenomenon), even as it has little to no actual impact upon these aspects of life (what correlation there often isRead MoreWomen s Participation For Sports1152 Words   |  5 Pagesand continue to show their strengths in endurance, resilience, and physical balance. They are also taking a much need and more collective stance in the promotion of sport democracy. Giving every participant a voice and a means to demonstrate their athletic skills and abilities both cognitively and physically during training as well as during competitions based on skill level regardless of the gender or disability of the athlete. Changed things much and may have even more firmly cemented the statusRead MoreThe Principles Of A Leader919 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction â€Å"One’s philosophy is not best expressed in words; it is expressed in the choices one makes†¦and the choices we make are ultimately our responsibility.† –Eleanor Roosevelt. Political figures, service members, clergymen, and personnel in the athletic domain have substantial dialogue in trying to capture the essence of what comprises effective leadership. Leadership is hard to define because it depends vastly on its context. Through extensive personal reflection, I can narrow down my leadershipRead MoreWhy Leaders Differentiate Lmx Quality2755 Words   |  12 Pagesfindings show the positive relationships between the quality of LMX and subordinates’ performance such as task performance, job satisfaction, and organization citizenship behaviors (Gerstner Day,1997; Ilies, Nahrgang, Morgeson, 2007; Zhang, Wang, Shi, 2012). Additionally, high quality of LMX, in turn, influence on multilevel outcomes including subordinates, leaders themselves, group, and organizational performance outcomes (Liden et al., 2006, Henderson et al., 2008, Wilson et al., 2010). As researchers

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender, Gender And Sex Matters - 904 Words

Gender and Sex Matters This class is all really interesting for me, except the two features I talked above, all the other topics are just too attractive and applaud me. The gender problems totally right, and I believe this happens in every country. When I translated â€Å"Sex† and â€Å"Gender† in the dictionary, it gives us the same meaning: male and female. Thus I ‘m really surprised when I found they have different meanings in class! As referred to by Allen, Sex is a biological classification while gender refers to cultural norms of femininity and masculinity. (Allen, 2011, p. 42) There are lots of boys whose femininity and lots of girls who wear like boys and they want to be boys. I know it cause my high school is a girls school, and many of my friends don’t love dressing and don’t love boys. They even hate their chest, and thinking of getting rid of it all day. However, we don’t have a physiology course talking about this. Talking about them, the next chapter sexuality is really connected. We don’t allow gay marriage in China, and although it does not touch the law, but it will cause a lot of problems in everyday life, it even leads you to death sadly. Five years ago, homosexual people in China were really active, they wants to get their right to happiness in China too, just like here in America and those countries support gay marriage. They start all kinds of activities, they want something like homophile movement (Allen, 2011, p123), which happened in the 1950s, middle-Show MoreRelatedSex And Gender : Today s Society902 Words   |  4 PagesSex and gender are words presented in very controversial topics surrounding the media in today’s society. But how do we know which in which environment to use the different terms? To what extent do you differentiate sex and gender? Until recent years gender and sex were used in the same context. 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The main purpose of the National Rifle Association (NRA) Free Essays

The main purpose of the National Rifle Association (NRA)[1] is to â€Å"promote and encourage rifle shooting on a scientific basis†.[2]   Along with this key initiative, the NRA has other promoting sights that harbor the same motto such as the Institute for Legislative Action[3], and the NRA Foundation[4] (Source Watch, December 2005). The goals of the NRA may be considered conservative because it is an organization priding itself on the proper use of gun control, and it repeatedly goes back to the second admendemnt that allows citizenry to bear arms. We will write a custom essay sample on The main purpose of the National Rifle Association (NRA) or any similar topic only for you Order Now    The goals tend to be more on the conservative side since the point of the organization is for citizenry to keep and use firearms and hold a militia in case of infringing governemnt control.   The side that counteracts any deceitful government with military action as the second amendment states[5], The Second Amendment guarantees: â€Å"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.† This guarantees a citizen’s right to keep and bear arms for personal defense. The revolutionary experience caused our forebears to address a second concern — the ability of Americans to maintain a citizen militia. The Founding Fathers trusted an armed citizenry as the best safeguard against the possibility of a tyrannical government. The NRA then is a conservative organization.   This is true because the NRA is only for law-abiding citizens having guns while a liberal stance would be for no one having a gun.   That is the main difference.   Conservatives then believe that guns are used for self-defense.   The main base of the NRA is shooting according to a scientific basis, and therefore gun control is not ideal for an NRA member.   They believe that gun control laws are not applicable in today’s society although there are staggering statistics that prove that gun control does work because per capita countries with gun control laws have less gun related incidents and death[6].   In all the NRA is a very conservative organization. One of the main politicians that oppose the gun control issue is former congressman John Thune[7].   The politician that is for gun control is Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle.   Their views are very much strictly conservative opposing fundamental liberalism.   In areas such a gun control and the laws arising in the senate for or against these laws both politicians have adamantly stood in contrast to the other, as the NRA website states in Cox’s article, Since 1986, Daschle has cast literally dozens of anti-gun votes in the U.S. Senate. He voted for the Clinton gun ban in 1994 and again earlier this year. He voted for prohibitions that would have shut down gun shows across America†¦ And as the leader of his party in the U.S. Senate, Daschle carries far more clout and control over fellow Democrats than you might think. And time after time, he has chosen to use that raw power against gun owners. In contrast, Daschle’s challenger, former Congressman John Thune, has been a committed defender of Second Amendment freedom since his first vote in Congress. During his tenure in the House, John Thune voted to prohibit the federal government from keeping computerized records of gun purchases and to protect the American tradition of weekend gun shows. These two politicians are polar opposites with issues concerning guns.   Of course on of the biggest debates on gun issues arose in the 2004 elections with John Kerry being obdurately opposed to guns and even wanted to ban them while Bush of course took the other stance and advocated guns and by extension the NRA. In the NRA’s goals of liberty, equality, and democracy hold true to the idea of freedom.   That is why the Second Amendment is so vital to the NRA’s standing infrastructure; it allows citizens to hold onto freedom with militia and guns in case of the inception of an autocratic government or despot scenario.   In this belief the NRA has a foundation dedicated to education about freedom and guns. The goal again of the NRA is to â€Å"promote and encourage rifle shooting on a scientific basis†.  Ã‚   The ideal of democracy is a nation for the people and the NRA seeks to uphold that goal.   In order to do so, and the maintain liberty, and equality the NRA foundation is a modicum that allows for people to exerise their right of bearing arms, as the website states, Established in 1990, The NRA Foundation, Inc., is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization that raises tax-deductible contributions in support of a wide range of firearm related public interest activities of the National Rifle Association of America and other organizations that defend and foster the Second Amendment rights of all law-abiding Americans. These activities are designed to promote firearms and hunting safety, to enhance marksmanship skills of those participating in the shooting sports, and to educate the general public about firearms in their historic, technological and artistic context. The Foundation is about protection; protecting freedom through use of guns.   In all, the goals of the NRA in direct accord with their view of liberty, equality and democracy. There are however interest groups that exist that oppose the NRA and their beliefs.   Some of these groups are affiliated with animal protection.   Though the NRA does hunt animals they do so with proper licensure.   The animal rights groups (FETA, National Humane Society of America) oppose the use of trapping, baiting, and hunting with dogs.   The opposition stems from the NRA believing every animal should be hunted without restriction to the animal rights groups wanting to limit hunting on specific species (bear, dove, etc) because of endangerment and other issues. In other instances the NRA helps to control a rising population of animal through hunting, as the website further states, Animal â€Å"rights† extremists from The Humane Society of the United States and other groups came out in strong support of a bill to stop the bear hunt in Maryland. Maryland DNR opposes the legislation and maintains this is needed to properly manage the bear population. The opposition to guns and by extension to the NRA is that they do not regulate their hunting but instead say that hunting a citizen’s right.   On the other hand, the NRA helps to maintain population control by hunting.   If hunters (or NRA active supporters) did not hunt then the population might get out of control and that animal would invading the space of humans, and in the case of the white-tailed deer their numbers would increase steadily and more people would get into wrecks because their population wasn’t checked through the use of fire-arms.   Also, in the view of an NRA member, hunting is a legitimate means by which to supply their family with food; so not only is hunting good for society but it is also good for the family. The NRA also has volunteer positions in its organization.   These positions include duties such as protecting freedom for gun owners.   Volunteers answer calls for the organization, and are called EVC (Election Volunteer Coordinators).   These volunteers as the NRA website states, †¦all EVCs serve on a voluntary basis, and ARE NOT employed by NRA. Rather, like you, they are NRA Members and volunteers who have stepped forward to help organize fellow Second Amendment supporters in an effort to protect our freedoms. If you are able to give ANY time to assist with volunteer activities in support of local pro-gun candidates, please contact the EVC in your area. The point of becoming a volunteer is to be actively involved in the protection of the Second Amendment in one’s own community.   A volunteer makes their surrounding community aware of the NRA and its issues through town-hall meetings, writing letters, writing newspaper articles, and in other ways during election years so that the citizenry is aware of the gun issues at hand are better equipped with gun knowledge.   There are also volunteer organizations involved with promoting the ideas of the NRA, one of which is the Firearms Coalition of Colorado and as the NRA website states, Formed 14 years ago to fight the City of Denver`s attempts to ban numerous semi-auto firearms, the Firearms Coalition of Colorado (FCC) exemplifies just what it means to be a â€Å"volunteer organization.† During the last 14 years, working side-by-side with NRA-ILA, FCC has steadfastly continued its efforts to thwart countless attacks by anti-gun politicians at the local and state levels. These are the ladies and gentlemen that you commonly find working at 3:00 a.m. if that is what it takes to get the job done. The purpose of volunteers and volunteer organizations is to promote gun awareness and to advocate the Second Amendment. The NRA is an organization dedicated to fire arms and the proper use of such firearms.   It is a strong advocate of the Second Amendment and is proud to take control of guns and the rights of the citizenry to use those guns for personal purpose without the interference of the government.   As their website states, and this paper reiterates, the NRA was Established in 1975, the Institute for Legislative Action (ILA) is the â€Å"lobbying† arm of the National Rifle Association of America. ILA is committed to preserving the right of all law-abiding individuals to purchase, possess and use firearms for legitimate purposes as guaranteed by the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It is therefore an organization priding itself on protecting an individual’s freedom, equality and democracy.   To achieve this, volunteers work during elections to ensure everyone is aware of gun issues and how to ensure that guns are not banned from the country.   The right to bear arms is important to the NRA because it ensures that an autocratic government does not take control of the nation, and guns are an important decipherer in that equation of freedom. Work Cited Friends of NRA.   ;; NRA Organization.   ;; Source Watch.   (December, 2005).   National Rifle Association.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ;; [1] A foundation founded in 1871 ( [2] This quote can be found on the NRA website at, [3] This is the NRA’s lobbying arm, which means it is a group of legislatures promoting the cause of the NRA with politicians and other public officials. [4] a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization, which provides â€Å"a means to raise millions of dollars to fund gun safety and educational projects of benefit to the general public.† (NRA website). [5] This quote is found on the NRA website and it furthers to explain the cause of the organization in regards to its fundamental motto and the fact that the NRA is trying to protect and legislate a citizens right to weapons in case of a tyrannical government. [6] There is a list of other conservative related issues pertaining to the NRA that are: conservatives believe that background checks are not necessary for owning a gun, it is unlawful to license gun owners, again there is the Second Amendment for the bearing of arms to protect individual rights, the NRA also holds true that it is wrong for individuals to sue gun companies. [7] Of South Dakota How to cite The main purpose of the National Rifle Association (NRA), Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

Policy Setting in Job Training Programs

Introduction Employment and Job training program is a valuable tool for ensuring organizations, and even nations at large, gain in terms of increased workers’ productivity. From the dimension of the workers, employment and the on-job training programs are beneficial in the sense that, they result to investment in workers’ abilities and careers, often improving them in the course of execution of such programs. For fresh graduates, employment and job training programs provide them with an amicable opportunity to both learn and work.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Policy Setting in Job Training Programs specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For the purposes of realization of these benefits, it is critical that organizations, in both public and private sectors, develop effective policies that guide proper and smooth running of employment and job training programs. The question is, thus, how shoul d it be done? Assuming the position of an external policy analyst, the paper seeks to answer this interrogative. Akin to development of employment and on job training programs policies, within organizations, is the need to distinguish between two technical terms learning and training. Friedlander and Robbins argue, â€Å"Training’ suggests putting stuff into people, when in essence we should be developing people from the inside out, so they achieve their own individual potential – what they love and enjoy, what they are most capable of, and strong at doing, rather than what we try to make them be† (923). Based on this argument, it is perhaps plausible to argue also that training is the province of organization’s concerns while learning is the concern of people working for the organization on an individual basis. This infers that learning is chiefly an outcome of training, which can be achieved or fail to be achieved, depending on the trainee’s leve ls of interest and intellectual abilities. Consequently, the paper proposes that employment and job training policies need to be formulated and implemented, in such a way that, such peculiar differences, amongst the target persons, are well addressed in the attempt to achieve enormous success of employment and job training programs. While formulating employment and job training policies, it is critical that substantive flexibility is provided. The paper argues that flexibility in policies development and enactment is relevant in the sense of making sure that mechanisms of incorporating dynamic changes, in terms of technological innovation in the programs, are provided. This implies that, problems should be redefined whenever an attempt is made to derive a new approach in deploying job training programs, in seeking to improve the productivity of the organizational workforce. However, any employment and job training program policy needs to be structured such that, it always defines th e problem at hand, considers philosophical and cultural perspectives of the organization (guiding principles, values, ethos, and visions among others), and people (their abilities and financial limitations).Advertising Looking for critical writing on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it should define legal contexts (in terms of discrimination, safety and health); methods of career development, recruitment, succession and selection; financial planning; and social responsibility perspectives (diversity, environment, ethics, sustainability and social corporate responsibility among others). Training program timing, scale and geographical factors, methods of measuring and evaluating policy achievements, and system tools, among others also need factoring in the policy formulation, implementation and evaluation phases. With this in mind, this paper focuses on policy development in the area of employment a nd job training programs. The paper begins by considering problem definition, followed by policy goal setting, then policy tools, and finally, consideration of probability of the proposed policy ability to get into an agenda. Problem definition Upon passing of the 1961 area redevelopment act in the U.S., policymakers embanked on reshaping and also endeavoring to upgrade skills coupled with employment prospects of people who garnered low income via employment and job training programs that were highly publicized. Many of these programs kicked off their concerns, by availing vocational training opportunities to people, who were displaced and dislocated before shifting in covering people who lived in poverty. Many of the persons, regarded as weak in the vocational training programs, were largely economically disadvantaged in the sense that, they had a long history that was ideally poor. As Friedlander and Robbins note, â€Å"during the 1960s the menu of services provided to economical ly disadvantaged people expanded, but since that time their variety and content have not changed very much† (927). However, the goals and orientations of employment and job training programs in the U.S. policies can be argued as having shifted incredibly. For example, within the last four decades, training programs policymakers have indeed changed their emphasis with regard to low costs as opposed to services that are high cost in nature with regard to the extent in which they serve the interests of the unemployed people who often are economically disadvantaged. Much change has also been realized, in the context of such programs capacity, to serve youths in comparison to adults, particularly dropouts of high schools. The main problem is that such programs fail to produce substantive earning and or employment gains among the youths. This problem is widely supported by the results of non-experimental evaluations coupled with alternative social experiment program models with the exception of findings of Job Corps program. Friedlander and Robbins reckon, â€Å"Some evaluations, including one experimental evaluation, report that Job Corp programs services modestly increase participants’ employment rates and earnings† (933).Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Policy Setting in Job Training Programs specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The services provided by Job Corps are, however, expensive but comprehensive in nature. The ability of the Job Corps’ employment training program to produce positive results is indeed, however, impacted by the fact that cost benefits analysis show that earnings increase derived from Job Corps training fails to justify the costs incurred in conducting the trainings. Ideally then on margin, chances are that the society may be better off in case the employment training resources could have been channeled to adults other than youths. Stat istically, expenditures on employment training program in the U.S. amount to 0.1 to 0.2 of the GDP depending on the nature of the program being implemented (Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith 43). Almost all other OECD member countries spend much more than the U.S. on employment training program as a share of their GDP (Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith 47). By considering the magnitude of poverty in comparison to wages inequalities among economically disadvantaged people- who are often targeted by employment and job training programs, it becomes challenging and often sheds light on why training program produces little impact on wages structure and or output. Employment and training programs, with regard to the policies establishing them, they ought not to affect the well-being of participants, on average. Apparently, based on evaluations, existing programs fails to integrate participants in the realm of the economic mainstream. Indeed even though job training programs may be primarily argued as effective in conducting training, from the workers dimension depending on the differences existing between various people especially their learning abilities, they may fail to ensure that workers indeed learn as intended. Consequently, amid making people disadvantaged economically less poor, the programs may fail to reduce poverty levels substantially, yet this aim is their noble role. Surprisingly enough, majorities of the programs are executed under lower costs per participant, than the annual cost of normal schooling. Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith exemplify this point by asserting, â€Å"In 1997, programs operated under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) spent on average about $3,000 per participant† (82). Arguably then, anticipating employment and training program to hike productivity output per participant to a sufficient level so that yearly earning escalate, by for instances thousands of dollars, infers that social investments need to have internal return rates tha t are extraordinary. In the modern-day, technologies deployed in organizations incredibly change virtually almost overnight. It is thus almost impossible to anticipate that, skills transferred to the population, through formal schooling, would do much such dynamic. Evidently, a mechanism of ensuring that workers remain updated with the emerging innovative technologies and methods of production, especially the ones that reduce production costs, is indispensable.Advertising Looking for critical writing on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Essentially, such knowledge is more likely to be transferred to people through employment and training programs that to date forms a concern of every organization that seeks to remain competitive. Reforms of employment and training policies are thus not an option, but a must for embracement by organizations. This aspect is perhaps largely significant by considering that, the question of effectiveness of employment and training program are likely to attract large public interest, especially by noting that, creativity and innovation are the key drivers of modern economies. Arguably, continuous training is the core of workers productivity output improvement. One of the most plausible ways of ensuring that employees continuously learn is the deployment of vocational training in every sector of production-something many nations have ardently embraced. However, change of policies governing vocational training is essential to make the current vocational training program more effective. To resolve the problem of failure, of employment and training programs to produce substantive earning and or employment gains among the youths, calls for change of the vocational training programs from being voluntary to mandatory. However, these trainings consume money and hence, the government essentially needs to either fund them on differed payment mode or treat then as part of essential services it provides to the citizens free of charge. Where charging is necessary, then, temporary assistance to needy families needs being considered. Policy goal setting The goal of developing vocational training policy by declaring that, it is mandatory for every student to attend mandatory vocational education and training program, in the due course of his or her education, is pegged on the idea of improving chances of students being considered for jobs upon clearing their formal education. Students, who have attended technical and vocational training programs, have experience on their line of s pecialization and hence are better placed to handle responsibilities delegated to them with minimal on the job training. Additionally, the goal of making such a policy is based on the belief that by placing students on mandatory vocational training program, they would get a lid of stereotyping associated with their careers. This has the consequences of making them develop impression that is realistic in relation to their careers of choice. Moreover, students would get acquaintance with their specialties’ â€Å"culture of industry and commerce, to develop the students understanding of the role and functions of different employees within an organization and to provide the discipline of employment† (Conger 30). Making technical and vocational training mandatory is necessary, especially by considering that, experience has shown that technical and vocational training institutions have an immense opportunity of having their students placed, as compared to other students who do not attend such programs. In this essence, the goal of making technical and vocational training mandatory is to ensure that students become demand-driven, dynamic, competitive, at both national and international levels, and quality conscious. Ensuring that students develop abilities to respond to work environmental dynamics would apparently mitigate the challenges previously encountered in training programs over the first two decades of the last four decades in which upon conducting on the job training, minimal results were obtained in terms of increased workers productivity outputs in comparison to the costs incurred during the training forums. Even though setting the goals of making technical and vocational training mandatory may sound as having the capacity of providing students with mechanisms of being recruited for jobs quick enough upon completion of the formal studies, several nations experience a number of drawback towards institutionalization of technical and vocational training programs. For instance, in India, technical and vocational training has been widely acclaimed as having the ability to improve the output of new job entrants. However, technical and the vocational training program policies have experienced immense challenges, because in India, there exists low priorities amongst the citizens for vocational training, insufficient industries for linkages, inadequate trainers and teachers, and non-existence of vertical mobility. Moreover, India boasts inflexible curriculum, non-agreement of various agencies, and absence of overall social appreciation of the roles of vocational education, among others. Application of the policy declaring that technical education and vocational training are mandatory needs also to embrace certain aspects in its formulation if at all the goals of vocational education and training are to be meet precisely. These aspects include; expansion and upgrading of vocational training and education, expansion and upgrading of technical and higher education, promotion of research in institutions of education and also redesigning patterns of education at school levels to ensure that skills development is facilitated. Government being the primary organ charged with ensuring the successful implementation of policies applicable at national fronts, on its part needs to ensure that vocational training and education program polices are fully implemented by declaring its roles precisely. Within the broader goals of making technical and vocational training mandatory, a government needs to strengthen, reinforce, and reform vocational training and education. It also needs to enact extra policies that ensure the capacity of technical and vocational training is expanded, by incorporation of the private sector coupled with promotion of academia and industry interaction, in the endeavor to ensure that, the gaps that may exist between skilled labor demand and supply is magnificently narrowed. Policy tools Policy tools are essentially engineered to serve as a variety of various evaluation approaches often applicable in the broadest probable application. The main objective of putting in place tools for policy evaluations is to derive the fundamental foundation of basing possible reforms on the proposed policy. In education policies formulation and implementation, there exist several reasons as to why policy tools need being set in place. One of the reasons is â€Å"to assess the nature and magnitude of the opportunities and constraints that face the systems that provide education and training† (Fetterman 18). Secondly, policy tools enable both private sector and the government to establish priorities in the allocation of resources for implementation of resource-constrained policies that are of national interest. This reason is enormously crucial while determining the capacity of likelihood of success of a policy seeking to make technical and vocational training mandatory and part of educati onal curriculum in the U.S. This move is particularly significant, since as argued before, for success of such a policy there needs to be heavy channeling of resources to according temporary assistance to needy families. Upon identification of the constraints, mechanisms of dealing with the constraints are enacted, and hence providing the basis for weighing possible options. Tools and instruments essential for implementation of the policy, stated herein as, â€Å"every person shall undergo mandatory technical vocational and training program as part of her or his qualification requirement†, must have cost elements ingrained in them. This means that justification of costs for running such a policy in relation to the anticipated economic gain is relevant. Therefore, in this context, policy tools are indeed not only mechanism of reflecting outcomes of a given policy, but also a way of providing informed guidance in an attempt of categorization of a policy as relevance or irreleva nt both in public and private domains. Bearing in mind the cumbersome process of making policies in the U.S., providing the platforms of classification of the policy this way, may provide a more competitive edge for resulting in the consideration of the proposed policy in the agenda. Apparently, if the policy is not included in the agenda, it cannot proceed to the next phases before it is approved. In attempting to push for the implementation of the policy, desirability and affordability are somewhat critical elements for consideration. The argument for desirability is that, technical and vocational training follows systematic procedures, just like any other form of education, and thus it could have myriads of benefits and desirable effects. Reforms in polices are intended to ensure improvement of outcomes from the contexts of quality and quantity of outcomes. Data providing evidence of investments, in technical and vocational training capacity to result in enhanced economic growth and increment, in employment rates could, in this end, support the desirability of making technical and vocational training mandatory. However, as previously argued, this endeavor would call for substantive government funding. Ideally then, pegged on the need to contemplate on the aspects of opportunity cost incurred if the policy is negated from inclusion in the agenda often would provide a coercive force to the policymakers who are mindful to the welfare of the society especially while choosing between beneficial and most beneficial policies for inclusion in the agenda. On the other hand, consideration of costs as a critical tool for ensuring successful implementation calls for taking into account valid dimensions of costs attributed to making technical and vocational training mandatory. These costs are either direct costs, for example, payments of salaries of technical and vocational trainers and teachers, and the costs of financing temporary assistance to needy families’ kitty or indirect costs. Indirect costs would entail aspects, such as costs for failing to provide financial incentives to needy families and or reduction in total payments payable at technical and vocational training institutions, as reflected in the in economic indicators, such as levels of unemployment and living standards of people. More importantly, analysis of costs needs to go beyond financial costs and involve political and social capital, among others. Consideration of costs as a tool for promoting the relevance of the policy, arguably entails putting policies makers in conditions of substantive evaluations and considerations of various possible policies for inclusion in the agenda which if not addressed would translate into increased indirect cost in future. This means then that the policy tool relies heavily on information availability and persuasions. Assessment of likelihood of incorporation of the policy in the agenda Getting an issue into a plan is one of the essentia l steps in policy development to address certain perceived social problems. This implies that unless an issue appears on an agenda, addressing it in a policy becomes a nightmare (Birkland 59). In fact, a lot of research has been done, by scholars, to determine the processes of getting issues into an agenda, coupled with issues that make an agenda and when such issues deserve to form part of an agenda. Despite the fact that numerous conditions that impair people’s abilities to contextualize issues relating to justice and fairness exist, evidently, not every condition is a problem requiring government interventions through policies. Unemployment is indeed a social challenge not only in the U.S. but also across the globe. Particularly, during recession, organizations prefer retaining workers who are highly productive to have high levels of output, while ensuring that cost of production is maintained as low as possible. With the conceptualization of this economic argument, and wi th justification of the fact that unemployment constitutes a social problem and that vocational training and education may increase chances of job selection coupled with hiking economic growth, getting the policy into an agenda is widely possible. However, challenges may be encountered, especially considering the cumbersomeness of policymaking process of the U.S. This aspect is perhaps significant by considering that, in some situation, some issues are considered as issues, while others are treated as non-issues, and hence hardly make it to the agenda list. Some issues are more likely to get into the agenda than others are. Among the reasons, why some issues do not make it to the agenda level includes problem definition, crowding an issue with other issues; the problem may be an illegitimate concern of the state, non-decision making and issues irrelevancy. The seriousness of issues is expressed in their definition. Poorly defined problems would consequently end up neglected in the a gendas. However, even though the problem may have been defied properly, its concerns may be irreverent to the state. However, it is anticipated that in the attempt to make vocational education and training mandatory in the U.S., the link between it and increased productivity indeed would make the policy being considered as an issue. Perhaps, by considering the concept of non-decision-making issues raised by a Bachrach and Baratz, it is apparent why some issues end up as being agendas while others do not. As Bachrach and Baratz reckon, â€Å"non-decision making in a power context is based on the presumption that political consensus is commonly shaped by status quo defenders, exercising their power resources and operated to prevent challenges to their values and interests† (901). A social condition, which attracts keen interests from the wider society, constitute a social problem, which needs solution often arrived at, after the issue of concern is incorporated in a public agen da. However, some issues that attract immense public interest are non-issues, perhaps because the concerned population may lack the ability to site solution as they may lack the power to do so (Birkland 87). Even if solutions are available, they may largely violate the interests and the status quo of those influential figures that would set the mechanisms of enabling the incorporation of the issue into an agenda. This implies that, though a social condition may be an agenda issue, the larger population may be forced to embrace it as part of their lives since they are incapacitated to push for likely solutions to it. A fear is also expressed that, the concerns of vocational training and fostering placement of fresh graduates may be treated as non-issues, and thus produce an impediment for the policy being incorporated in the agenda. Several reasons would account for this fear. In the debate of whether it is relevant making vocational education and training mandatory or not, it is ant icipated it would derive many disagreements among policymakers especially considering the hefty costs that go into it in terms of provision of temporary assistance to the needy families to meet its costs, and this scenario breeds fear. However, taking a condition entailing â€Å"actual disagreements in preferences among two or more groups† (Bachrach and Baratz 904) as comprising an issue is confusing. The question is, even if disagreements exist, do they attract the attention of the wider society. If so, does the wider society have the power to solicit suggested solution? In addition, if so, is the power limited to the extent that it does not violate the status quo of those in power? Any precondition for compliance with the two queries may make an issue end up being a non-issue and in the context of making vocational training and education mandatory, hinder it from getting into the agenda. Conclusion In the paper, it has been argued that employment and job training programs a re a valuable tool for ensuring organizations and even nations at large gain in terms of increased workers’ productivity. Research proves that employment and job-training program raises the probabilities of job recruitments among people. Investment in technical and vocational training is arguably one of the ways of enhancing employment and job training programs in the U.S. From this assertion; the paper proposes that in the U.S., a policy that makes technical and vocational training mandatory needs to be enacted. However, the success, of putting such a policy into an agenda, is challenging, considering the cumbersomeness of the policymaking process in the U.S. Hence, substantive tools need to be put in place, for ensuring that the proposed policy gets into an agenda. Apart from clear and concise problem definition in a manner that it amounts to a social problem and hence worth public attention, consideration of elements such as cost and benefit of making technical and vocatio nal training mandatory may indeed play a crucial role in facilitating articulation of the policy into the agenda. For these reasons, the paper has paid incredible attention in problem definition, goal setting, and the examination of policy tools by assuming the position of an external policy analyst. Works Cited Bachrach, Peter, and Morton Baratz. â€Å"Power And Its Two Faces Revisited: Reply To Geoffrey Debman.† American Political Science Review 69.3 (1975): 892-904. Print. Birkland, Thomas. After Disaster: Agenda Setting, Public Policy, And Focusing Events. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2008. Print. Conger, Stuart. Policies Guidelines for Educational and Vocational Training. Paris: UNESCO, 2006. Print. Fetterman, Martins. Foundations of Empowerment Evaluation. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2000. Print. Friedlander, Douglas, and Paul Robbins. Evaluating Program Evaluations: New Evidence on Commonly Used Non-Experimental Methods. American Economic Review 8 5.4 (1995): 923–937. Print. Heckman, Johnston, Duncan Lalonde, and James Smith. The Economics and Econometrics of Active Labor Market. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1999. Print. This critical writing on Policy Setting in Job Training Programs was written and submitted by user Nathalie Hawkins to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.